IELTS Writing Task 2

Dari 60 menit waktu yang diberikan untuk mengerjakan IELTS Writing, alokasi waktu yang ideal untuk Writing Task 2 adalah 40 menit, yang berarti Writing Task 2 memiliki porsi nilai dua per tiga dari total nilai Writing.

Dalam Writing Task 2, peserta ujian diminta untuk menuliskan essay sebanyak minimal 250 kata yang berisikan pendapat pribadi terhadap suatu gagasan yang diberikan.

Struktur Dasar (13 kalimat):
~ Paragraf 1 : INTRODUCTION (Paraphrasing dan mengemukakan pendapat) - 2 kalimat
~ Paragraf 2 & 3 : MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH - @5 kalimat
~ Paragraf 4 : CONCLUSION - 1 kalimat

Struktur 4 paragraf ini biasanya sudah bisa mencapai target minimal 250 kata. Struktur ini pun membuat essay mudah dibaca karena terorganisir dan ide-ide dikembangkan dengan logika yang jelas.

1. INTRODUCTION
Sama dengan Writing Task 1, Introduction dalam Writing Task 2 juga menuliskan paraphrase. Bedanya adalah, setelah menuliskan paraphrase, kamu harus menuliskan pendapat, setuju atau tidak setuju, setuju sebagian, seimbang, atau pendapat lainnya.

Contoh:
Question 1 :
Some people who have been in prison become good citizens later, and it is often argued that these are the best people to talk to teenagers about the dangers of committing a crime.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Introduction :
It is true that ex-prisoners can become normal, productive members of society. I completely agree with the idea that allowing such people to speak to teenagers about their experiences is the best way to discourage them from breaking the law.

Question 2 :
These days more fathers stay at home and take care of their children while mothers go out to work.
What could be the reasons for this? Do you think it is a positive or a negative development. 
Introduction :
It is true that men are increasingly likely to take on the role of househusband, while more women than ever are the breadwinners in their families. There could be several reasons for this, and I consider it to be a very positive trend.

2. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH
Main Body Paragraph dibagi menjadi 2 paragraf yang masing-masing memiliki 1 topic sentence. Sangat penting untuk membuat draft apa saja yang akan ditulis (idealnya 1 paragraf memiliki 5 kalimat) agar lebih terstruktur. Lebih baik menghabiskan lebih banyak waktu untuk merancang draft daripada langsung menulis Main Body Paragraph karena berisiko kehabisan ide yang akhirnya terpaksa menulis pepesan kosong untuk memenuhi target 250 kata dan memperbesar kemungkinan off topic.

Contoh :
Question 1 :
Many people prefer to watch foreign films rather than locally produced films.
Why could this be? Should governments give more financial support to local film industries?

5-idea plan untuk "why could this be?"
1. Topic sentence : several reasons
2. First reason : budgets for actions, special effects, spectacular locations
3. Example : Hollywood blockbusters like Avatar or James Bond films
4. Second reason : the most famous actors, acresses and directors
5. Final reason : poor quality local filmmaking in many countries

Full paragraph with 5-sentences (one for each idea):
There are various reasons why many people find foreign films more enjoyable than the films produced in their own countries. Firstly, the established film industries in certain countries have huge budgets for action, special effects and to shoot scenes in spectacular locations. Hollywood blockbusters like ‘Avatar’ or the James Bond films are examples of such productions, and their global appeal is undeniable. Another reason why these big-budget films are so successful is that they often star the most famous actors and actresses, and they are made by the most accomplished producers and directors. The poor quality, low-budget filmmaking in many countries suffers in comparison.

5-idea plan untuk "Should governments give more financial support to local film industries?"
1. Topic sentence :  governments should support local film industries
2. Explain why : talented local film-makers need opportunities
3. Explain more - they need money to pay film crews, actors etc.
4. Explain consequences - would lead to employment, income, tourism
5. Example - invent an example about your country!

Full paragraph with 5-sentences :
In my view, governments should support local film industries financially. In every country, there may be talented amateur film-makers who just need to be given the opportunity to prove themselves. To compete with big-budget productions from overseas, these people need money to pay for film crews, actors and a host of other costs related to producing high-quality films. If governments did help with these costs, they would see an increase in employment in the film industry, income from film sales, and perhaps even a rise in tourist numbers. New Zealand, for example, has seen an increase in tourism related to the 'Lord of the Rings' films, which were partly funded by government subsidies.

3. CONCLUSION
Kesimpulan cukup dengan menuliskan satu kalimat yang merangkum keseluruhan respon terhadap pertanyaan. Jangan menuliskan alasan detail dan tidak perlu menulis panjang-panjang karena Conclusion tidak memiliki andil besar menentukan skor. Sebaiknya gunakan sisa waktu untuk memeriksa dan memperbaiki Main Body Paragraph.

Contoh Conclusion untuk pertanyaan sebelumnya:
In conclusion, I believe that increased financial support could help to raise the quality of locally made films and allow them to compete with the foreign productions that currently dominate the market.

4 Tipe soal Writing Task 2:
1. Opinion - Jenis soal ini menanyakan pandangan kamu, bukan pandangan orang lain. Tulislah opini jelas di Introduction dan jelaskan dalam essay.
2. Discussion + opinion - Jenis soal ini memintamu untuk menulis tentang kedua sisi argumen dengan porsi tulisan yang sama untuk kedua sisi.
3. Problem + solution - Cukup menuliskan satu paragraf tentang problem(s) dan satu paragraf tentang solution(s).
4. 2-part question - Cukup menjawab 2 pertanyaan yang diajukan, masing-masing 1 paragraf.

Contoh soal Opinion:
Question :
In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone nowadays than in the past.
Do you think this is a positive or negative development? 
Introduction :
In recent years it has become far more normal for people to live alone, particularly in large cities in the developed world. In my opinion, this trend could have both positive and negative consequences in equal measures.

Contoh soal Discussion + opinion:
Question :
Some people think that all university students should study whatever they like. Others believe that they should only be allowed to study subjects that will be useful in the future, such as science and technology.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
Introduction :
People have different views about how much choice students should have with regard to what they can study at university. While some argue that it would be better for students to be forced into certain key subject areas, I believe that everyone should be able to study the course of their choice.

Contoh soal Problem + solution:
Question :
More and more people are migrating to cities in search of a better life, but city life can be extremely difficult. 
Explain some of the difficulties of liveing in a city. How can governments make urban life better for everyone?
Introduction :
Cities are often seen as places of opportunity, but there are also some major drawbacks of living in a large metropolis. In my opinion, governments could do much more to improve city life for the average inhabitant.

Contoh soal 2-part question:
Question :  
Happiness is considered very important in life. Why is it difficult to define? What factors are important in achieving happiness?
Introduction :
It is no doubt true that the majority of people would like to be happy in their lives. While the personal nature of happiness makes it difficult to describe, there do seem to be some common needs that we all share with regard to experiencing or achieving happiness.

4 Tipe jawaban untuk soal "Agree or Disagree":
1. Strong answer, two supporting ideas
Question :
Wild animals have no place in the 21st century, so protecting them is a waste of resources. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Answer :
Paragraph 1: Some people argue that it is pointless to spend money on the protection of wild animals because we humans have no need for them. I completely disagree with this point of view.
Paragraph 2 (explain one reason): In my opinion, it is absurd to argue that wild animals have no place in the 21st century...
Paragraph 3 (explain another reason): I also disagree with the idea that protection animals is a waste of resources...
Paragraph 4: In conclusion, we have no right to decide whether or not wild animals should exist, and I believe that we should do everything we can to protect them.

2. Strong answer, refute the opposite view
Question :
Some people think that instead of preventing climate change, we need to find a way to live with it. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Answer :
Paragraph 1: Climate change represents a major threat to life on Earth, but some people argue that we need to accept it rather than try to stop it. I completely disagree with this opinion, because I believe that we still have time to tackle this issue and reduce the human impact on the Earth's climate.
Paragraph 2 (explain your opinion): There are various measures that governments and individuals could take to prevent, or at least mitigate, climate change...
Paragraph 3 (explain why you think the opposite view is wrong): If instead of taking the above measures we simply try to live with climate change, I believe that the consequences will be disastrous...
Paragraph 4: In conclusion, it is clear to me that we must address the problem of climate change, and I disagree with those who argue that we can find ways to live with it.

3. Balanced opinion / Partly agree
Question :
As well as making money, businesses also have social responsibilities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Answer :
Paragraph 1: Businesses have always sought to make a profit, but it is becoming increasingly common to hear people talk about the social obligations that companies have. I completely agree with the idea that business should do more for society than simply make money.
Paragraph 2 (explain your views on one side of the argument): On the one hand, I accept that business must make money in order to survive in a competitive world...
Paragraph 3 (explain why you also recognise the opposite view): On the other hand, companies should not be run with the sole aim of maximising profit, they have a wider role to play in society...
Paragraph 4: In conclusion, I believe that companies should place as much importance on their social responsibilities as they do on their financial objectives.

4. Almost balanced opinion, but favouring one side
Question :
It is inevitable that traditional cultures will be lost as technology develops. Technology and traditional cultures are incompatible. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this view?
Paragraph 1 (use a "while" sentence): Some people believe that technological development lead to the loss of traditional cultures. I partly agree with this assertion; while it may be true in the case of some societies, others seem to be unaffected by technology and the modern world.
Paragraph 2 (explain why you accept one side of the argument): On the one hand, the advances in technology that have driven industrialisation in developed countries have certainly contributed to the disappearance of traditional ways of life...
Paragraph 3 (but explain why you still favour the opposite view): On the other hand, in some parts of the world traditional cultures still thrive...
Paragraph 4: In conclusion, many traditional ways of life have been lost as a result of advances in technology, but other traditional communities have survived and even flourished.

Metode Belajar:
~ Kumpulkan soal-soal yang mencakup semua tipe soal, pastikan sumbernya dari Cambridge IELTS atau Official IELTS Practice Materials atau IELTS.org.
~ Coba latihan untuk masing-masing bagian : Introduction, Conclusion, Main Body Paragraph.
Setelah itu barulah latihan menulis full report dan usahakan tetap mengacu pada struktur 4 paragraf-13 kalimat yang diajarkan Simon.

DON'TS
~ Jangan menulis 'future prediction' dalam Conclusion karena berisiko dianggap irrelevant
~ Lupakan 'complex structures' dan 'difficult words'. Ketika kamu berusaha keras untuk membuat essay terlihat sulit, biasanya justru tampak aneh dan salah
Jangan menulis paragraf tentang pendapat orang lain ketika menjawab completely agree atau completely disagree. Jika ingin menyebutkan argumen sebaliknya, pastikan kamu menjelaskan kenapa menurut kamu itu salah.


Soal Writing Task 2 yang saya dapat ketika ujian di tanggal 12 Agustus 2017 adalah
Solving environmental problems should be the responsibility of one international organisation rather than the responsibility of each national government. Do you agree or disagree?
Beberapa detik pertama baca soal ini saya bingung mampus. Langsung inget saran pamungkas dari Simon : Stick to the 4-paragraph structure. Saya bikin outline untuk tiap paragraf. Paraphrase untuk introduction sih gampang. Nah begitu mau nulis opini, saya timbang-timbang dulu apakah analisis saya akan lebih mudah dijabarkan dengan opini setuju, tidak setuju, atau balance. Pilihan saya jatuh ke balance karena saya ingin menulis satu paragraf yang mendukung one international organisation dan satu paragraf yang juga mendukung national government. Selesai menentukan pilihan, saya lanjut bikin ide untuk 5 kalimat dalam tiap paragraf. Walaupun sudah sering latihan membuat draft, tapi di hari H berasa banged tegangnya sampe susah mikir, ditambah lagi bagian Writing Task 2 ini adalah bagian terakhir dari IELTS, sementara saya udah mulai nahan pipis dari menit pertama ujian. Mantap.
Saya sempat mengira waktu yang disediakan tidak akan cukup walaupun saya sudah membagi porsi 40 menit khusus untuk Writing Task 2, tapi ternyata struktur dari Simon ini membantu banged. Memang sih saya alokasi waktu untuk membuat draft cukup banyak, tapi setelah draft ditulis, mengonversikan ide per kalimat menjadi kalimat utuh jadi gampang banged. Alhasil, saya selesai tepat waktu, bahkan masih tersisa 10 menit untuk cek grammar dan jumlah kata.
Oh tapi bukan berarti struktur ini menjamin kamu dapet nilai IELTS yang tinggi loh ya. Isi essay juga penting.

Berikut ini contoh penilaian examiner terhadap jawaban Simon untuk soal In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone nowadays than in the past. Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
Task repsonse
  • The essay fully addresses the task; it is "on topic" at all times, and it definitely answers the question.
  • The position (opinion / overall answer) is clear throughout the essay. It is presented in the introduction, and then supported in the rest of the essay (with no surprises in the conclusion!).
  • Lots of detail is given. Ideas are "fully extended" (explained in depth) and well supported.
Coherence and cohesion
  • Ideas are presented in a logical and organised way.
  • There is definitely a good "flow" to the essay, so that the argument builds and develops. Paragraphing is well managed, and each paragraph is well constructed.
  • Cohesive devices (linking) are used in an effective but subtle way - they help with the development of ideas, but do not overshadow those ideas.
Lexical resource (vocabulary)
  • A wide range of vocabulary is used.
  • Vocabulary is used appropriately, skillfully and naturally in the development of ideas.
  • There are several examples of "less common" items of vocabulary, all of which are used appropriately.
Grammatical range and accuracy
  • A wide range of structures is used.
  • There are no mistakes!
Beda target score, beda pula saran yang diberikan Simon:
~ Band 5, 5.5 or 6:
You can reach band 6 with fairly 'easy' language if your essay structure is good, your ideas are relevant to the question topic, and you write at least 250 words. Look through the writing task 2 lessons on this website to learn how to write introductions, main paragraphs and conclusions, and work on writing short, simple sentences to express your ideas.
When people get band 5 or below, it is often because they don't finish their essays, they go off-topic, they have no idea about good essay structure, or they try to use 'difficult' language and therefore make lots of mistakes. For bands 5 to 6, keep your essays simple and clear.

~ Band 7 or higher:
First, you need to do everything that I mentioned above: you need relevant ideas, a good essay structure, and you must write at least 250 words.
But to reach the higher scores, your essays need more 'depth'. You need to explain your ideas in more detail, using a wider range of vocabulary. At this level, good essay structure is not enough, and memorised linking phrases won't help either. Your focus should be on real content.

Source : ielts-simon.com

Jawaban lengkap versi Simon untuk contoh-contoh soal yang digunakan dalam post ini bisa dilihat di sini.

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